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Computers and information networks are critical to the success of businesses, both large and small. They connect people, support applications and services, and provide access to the resources that keep the businesses running. To meet the daily requirements of businesses, standard networks themselves are becom¬ing quite complex and costly.

Today, the Internet-based economy often demands around-the-clock customer service. This means that business networks must be available nearly 100 percent of the time. They must be smart enough to automatically protect against unexpected security incidents. These business networks must also be able to adjust to changing traffic loads to maintain consistent application response times. For standard networks it is no longer practical to construct networks by connecting many standalone components without careful planning and design.

Functionally reliable networks do not happen by accident. They are the result of hard work by network designers and technicians, who identify network requirements and select the best solutions and products to meet the needs of a business.

The steps we required to design a reliable network for our customers are as follows:

Audit: Verify the business goals and technical requirements
Determine the features and functions required to meet the needs identified in Audit
Perform a network-readiness assessment
Create a solution and site acceptance test plan
Provide a project plan for our customer

After the network requirements have been identified, we begin the steps in designing a robust network for our customer as the project implementation moves forward
Designing or network we focus on the network as a way to access the applications they need, when and how customer needs them to operate efficiently and effectively

We focus on these main requirements for our customer’s network requirements


Network Fundamentals of Our Design Goals

Our requirements translate into four fundamental network design goals for customer


Optical Hierarchical Network Design

Our optical network is designed to meet four fundamental design goals and built on an architecture that allows for both flexibility and growth

In general networking, a hierarchical design is used to group devices into multiple networks. The networks are organized in a layered approach. The general hierarchical design model has three basic layers.

    • Core layer: Connects distribution layer devices
    • Distribution layer: Interconnects the smaller local networks
    • Access layer: Provides connectivity for network hosts and end devices

Our optical network provides for these same conditions for using a different connection methodology

General Hierarchical networks have advantages over standard flat network designs. The benefit of dividing a flat network into smaller, more manageable hierarchical blocks is that local traffic remains local. Only traffic destined for other networks is moved to a higher layer.

Our optical hierarchical network design has capability of segregating and dividing “flat network” into separate and or layered networks which provide both security and more manageable network blocks. This gives our network capability of optically managing traffic within and without the network.

General Flate Network

General Layer 2 devices in a flat network provide little opportunity to control broadcasts or to filter undesirable traffic. As more devices and applications are added to a flat network, response times degrade until the network becomes unusable. Our optical layer 2 device provides a more robust connectivity and distribution in a more granular delivery. Our optical layer 2 device is capable of dividing the bandwidth into specific data rates in each port and even to each individual user.

Optical Flate Network

The Tevetron Covalent Connect network (see Figure 4) as the ability to manage further division of the three-layer optical hier¬archical design into modular areas and create the granular connectivity to individual end-users. Figures 3 show standard hierarchical network design versus a flat network design (figure 1). The multicolored pathways module connections represent areas that have different physical or logical connectivity. They designate where different functions occur in the network. This modularity enables flexibility in network design. It facilitates implementation and troubleshooting.

Standard Network Layout

general hierarchical network

Covalent Connect Layout

optical hierarchial network


Modular Design of Enterprise Architectures

Three areas of focus in modular network design are as follows:

General architecture

Optical Architecture

Our optical backbone network provides clearly defined boundaries-pathways between modules. This provides clear demarcation points so that the network pathways are exactly defined for network management in determining where the traffic originates and where it flows.

Our optical backbone network provides ease of the design by making each module pathway independent. The network connectivity is focused on the requirements of each area or department separately.

Our optical backbone network provides scalability by allowing network to add modules easily. As network complexity grows, the optical backbone network easily incorporates new functional modules and pathways.

The addition of network services and solutions can be expanded without changing the underlying network connectivity.

Tevetron’s Covalent Connect network design provides the characteristics of a standard hierarchal model while providing multiple-secure connection pathways within the Enterprise Architecture to connect all delivery pathways to the correct location or departments.

Covalent Connect Campus  Architecture

Optical Campus Network


Tevetron’s Covalent Connect Optical Network Design Methodologies

Tevetron’s approach for developing large network design projects are divided into three distinct steps, identifying the network requirements, characterize the existing network, and provide a network topology with customize solutions that meet the current needs of the network and address future expandability.

Tevetron works closely with the customer to document the goals of the project. Goals are usually separated into two categories:

• Business goals: Focus on how maximize network connectivity which in turn make the business more successful
• Technical requirements: Focus on how our solutions can be implemented within the network with current technology and for future expansion

Before project is started we implement an audit which provides Information about the current network and current services and reviewed. We compare the functionality of the existing network with the defined goals of the new project and determine how we can integrate both the current network and are optical backbone network solution. Tevetron uses the audit process to determine whether any existing equipment, infrastructure, and protocols can be reused, and how our new equipment and protocols can be implemented to complete the required design.

Tevetron’s strategy for network design is to start with a take a “top-down” and segregate topography approach. In this approach, the network applications, security and service requirements are identified, and then the network is built to support each department with the specific connectivity required. Typically the Tevetron network is implemented parallel with the current network and tested to confirm all specifications and requirements of the network.


Elements Typically Impacting the Network

When implementing new or additional network systems it is important to identify the requirements that impact the entire network which include the following:


Elements Typically Impacting a Portion of the Network

In certain network upgrades only a portion of the network requires specific improvements, is important to keep in mind that these network requirements may only affect a portion of the network which typically include the following:

• Improving Internet connectivity and adding bandwidth
• Updating access layer LAN cabling
• Providing redundancy for key services
• Supporting wireless access in defined areas
• Upgrading WAN bandwidth


Tevetron’s Covalent Connect Optical Backbone Core Layer Design Considerations

Tevetron’s optical backbone hierarchal model is composed of the optical core-distribution layer, and optical access layer. The optical core-distribution layer is responsible for transporting large amounts of data quickly and reliably. This application ensures that the core-distribution layer is designed with fault tolerance. This device prevents unnecessary delays in network traffic quickly which typically becomes is a top priority for the network functionality.

Optical Core Layer

Optical Core

The Covalent Connect core-distribution layer is the network backbone. The Covalent Connect functions as the routers and switches at the core layer providing high-speed connectivity. In an enterprise LAN, the core-distribution layer, can connect multiple buildings or multiple sites, and can provide connectivity to the server farm. The core-distribution layer includes one or more links to the devices at the enterprise edge to support Internet, virtual private networks (VPN), intranet, extranet, and WAN access.

Implementing an optical core-distribution layer reduces the complexity of the network, making it easier to manage and troubleshoot.


Objective of the Optical Core Layer

The optical core-distribution layer enables the efficient, high-speed transfer of data between one section of the network and another. The primary design goals at the optical core-distribution layer are as follows:

• Provide 100% uptime.
• Maximize throughput.
• Facilitate network growth.


Tevetron Core Layer Technologies

The Tevetron Covalent Connect core layer provides for Carrier Ethernet as a ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class service and network with attributes that distinguish it from standard LAN-based Ethernet networks. The Covalent Connect attributes are standardized services, security, scalability, reliability, management and quality of service. Leveraging these attributes, Carrier Ethernet Services can incorporate the following characteristics and benefits which enable implementation of robust, cost-effective, and future proof WAN connectivity solutions.

Tevetron’s Covalent Connect used at the core layer includes the following:

• Optical Routers or multilayer switch functions that integrates routing and switching capabilities in the same device layer
• Redundancy and load balancing
• High-speed and aggregate links
• Agnostic Optical Routing format which provides optimum connectivity

Customers can deploy active Ethernet based network infrastructure to deliver bandwidth-intensive service applications such as triple play service. The Covalent Connect also enables the use of E-Line, E-LAN based Carrier Ethernet services, customers can offer the service type of Ethernet private line (EPL), Ethernet virtual private line (EVPL), etc to enterprise, SMB, SOHO customers and eventually bring substantial business benefits to those customers as well as generate the new revenue income and customer satisfaction for operators themselves.

The Covalent Connect solution covers Ethernet demarcation device, that is MEF defined UNI (User Network Interface) solution from subscriber end (UNI-C) to operator end (UNI-N). The products complies with the MEF defined standards to guarantee the interoperability with the MEF certified ones from other equipment providers in the world wide.

The covalent connect core-distribution layer is a layer 2+ Gigabit access switch solution. It equips multiple port configurations such as 100Base-FX/1000Base-X dual speed SFP slots with 10GBase-X SFP+ uplink slots. The Covalent Connect offers the best flexibility and scalability for the customers or service providers to deploy their Metro Ethernet network. With the deployment of Covalent Connect core-distribution layer, customers or service providers can flexibly provision the bandwidth either 100Mbps or 1000Mbps as well as uplink connection of 10G speed upon their service applications.

Implementing the Covalent Connect solution at the Metro Ethernet application, the specifications of Covalent Connect fully meet the attributes of Carrier Ethernet proposed by MEF (Metro Ethernet Forum). The Covalent Connect complies with MEF 9 standard to support E-Line/E-LAN service, MEF 14 standard to enable the bandwidth profile configuration delivering SLA (Service Level Agreement) for end-to-end performance characteristics as well as MEF21 to support carrier grade service OAM management rapidly detecting and recovering from the network incidents in real time.


Redundant Links

The Covalent Connect optical core implements redundant links at the core layer to ensure that network devices can find alternate paths to send data in the event of a failure. When our Layer 3 devices are placed at the core layer, these redundant links can be used for load balancing in addition to providing backup. In our flat, Layer 2 network, we can incorporate Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) which disables redundant links unless a primary link fails. The STP operations prevent load balancing over the redundant links in the network.

With our Covalent Connect the core layers in a network are wired in either a full-mesh or partial-mesh optical link topology. A full-mesh topology is one in which every device has a connection to every other device using our optical link topography. Although in typical networks full-mesh topologies provide the benefit of a fully redundant network, they can be difficult to wire and manage and are more costly. Using the Covalent Connect core layer devices we can provide the same connectivity benefits with a simpler management format and a cost-effective installation. Typically for larger installations, a modified partial-mesh topology is used. In a partial-mesh topology, each device is connected to at least two others, creating sufficient redundancy without the complexity of a full mesh. Using the Covalent Connect core layer device a number of connection topographies are available.


Covalent Connect Distribution Layer

Tevetron’s optical hierarchical network design for the distribution layer includes the capability of routing, filtering, and functions as the point between the core layer and the access layer. The Covalent Connect technology provides for the distribution layer devices to communicate to each layer.

The distribution layer provides the routing boundary topography between the access layer and the core layer. It also serves as a connection point between remote sites and the core layer.

Optical distribution

Our Covalent Connect access layer is an Optical Layer 2 + switching technology. The distribution layer is built on an optical Layer 3 + technology. The optical Covalent Connect routers or multilayer switches, located at the distribution layer, provide many functions critical for meeting the goals of the network parameters, including the following:

• Filtering and managing traffic flows
• Enforcing access control policies
• Summarizing routes before advertising the routes to the Core
• Isolating the core from access layer failures or disruptions
• Routing between access layer VLANs

Distribution layer devices are also used to manage queues and prioritize traffic before transmission through the campus core.



Trunk links are often configured between access and distribution layer networking devices. Trunks are used to carry traffic that belongs to multiple VLANs between devices over the same link.


Redundant Links

When redundant links exist between devices in the distribution layer, the devices can be configured to load balance the traffic across the links. Load balancing is another option that increases the bandwidth available for applications.

Optical trunk


Distribution Layer Topology

The Covalent Connect distribution layer networks are wired in our optical topography which is usually identified as the “partial-mesh topology” in a typical network. This optical topography provides complete redundant paths to ensure that the network can survive a link or device failure. When the Covalent Connect distribution layer devices are located in the same wiring closet or data center, they are interconnected using our optical topography gigabit links enabling the devices to be connected by longer distances to any network mode. The Covalent Connect supports multiple high-speed fiber connections are available to provide the desired bandwidth and redundancy.


Covalent Connect Access Layer

The Covalent Connect access layer is used to provide location connectivity and control user access to the internetwork resources. The Covalent Connect access layer manages the traffic generated from the access layer locations within the segments or other layers of the network. Without an appropriate access layer configuration communications could quickly become inundated with traffic, resulting in less-than-acceptable performance for the end users.

The access layer provides for edge connectivity of the network. The Covalent Connect access layer devices reside inside each building of a campus, or on the floors of the building for each remote site and server farm, and at the enterprise edge.

Tevetron Covalent Connect access layer devices used in campus infrastructure are built on optical Layer 2 + switching technology which provides to the network. The access can incorporate a permanent wired, optical fiber infrastructure and connect through wire-less access points. Typically Ethernet over copper wiring poses distance limitations with the Covalent Connect access layer typical distance limitations are removed.

Tevetron’s Covalent Connect Layer 2+ device supports Gigabit Ethernet traffic over fiber, with combined WDM technology. The Covalent Connect provides EMF compliant services for deploying in carrier Ethernet networks as a first point of entry into the provider network. Our Covalent Connect access layer incorporates traffic over fiber enabling EPL (Ethernet Private Line) & EVPL (Ethernet Virtual Private Line) services with advanced carrier Ethernet features per MEF-9 and MEF-14 specifications. The covalent connect access layer also supports link and service Ethernet OAM schemes, and also provides extensive fault detection and diagnostic capabilities to ensure that actual network functionality complies with network specifications.

Typically network consists of more than just personal computers and printers connecting to the access layer. Many different devices may be required that need to connect to an IP network, including the following:

• IP telephones
• Video cameras
• Videoconferencing systems

With the Tevetron Covalent Connect technology all of these services can be converged onto a single physical access layer infrastructure. The Covalent Connect technology support management becomes less complex in order to provide services such as quality of service (QoS), traffic segregation, and filtering. Our layer 2+ access devices provide for applications and services, scalability, availability, security, and complete manageability at the access layer. Tevetron’s Covalent Connect Access Layer includes improvements with the manageability of the access layer by providing the capability of increasing in the number and types of devices connecting at the access layer and of wireless access points into LAN applications.


Security Measures

The vulnerabilities of general networks show that typical networks are an extremely unsecure environment. Networks must place security as a top priority in their capabilities. Antivirus software is one way to prevent an attack, but add additional costs over time and cannot prevent physical breaches of the network or its applications.

Physical security of our Covalent Connect network is very important to your network design. Most network intruders gain physical entry at the access layer. On some network devices, such as routers and switches, physical access can provide the opportunity to change passwords and obtain full access to devices. Obvious measures, such as locking wiring closets and restricting access to networking devices, are often the most effective ways to prevent security breaches. In high-risk or easily accessible areas, it might be necessary to equip wiring closets with additional security, such as cameras or motion detection devices and alarms.


Securing Access Layer Networking Devices

The typical measures listed here can provide additional security to networking devices at the access layer:
• Setting strong passwords
• Using Secure Shell (SSH) to administer devices
• Disabling unused ports

With Tevetron’s covalent connect network switch port security and network access control can ensure through design and connectivity such that that only known and trusted devices have access to the network.


Recommended Practice on Security

Security risks cannot be eliminated or prevented completely. Effective risk management and assessment can significantly minimize the existing security risks. When considering security measures, it is important to understand that no single product can make an organization secure. True network security comes from a combination of products, services, and procedures and a thorough security policy and commitment to adhere to that policy


Data Center Security

Data center servers can be the target of malicious attacks and must be protected. Tevetron’s covalent connect optical network topography has capability of reducing or preventing attacks against server farms which can result in lost business for e-commerce and business-to-business applications and in information theft. Using Tevetron’s optical network topography in both LANs and storage-area networks (SAN) can be secured to reduce the chances of such attacks. Hackers use a variety of tools to inspect networks and to launch intrusion and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks which becomes more difficult using the optical topography network.



The parameters of a robust and secure network requires concerted efforts by network designers and technicians, who identify network requirements and select the best solutions to meet the needs of a business.

The four fundamental technical requirements of network design are scalability, availability, security, and manageability.

Tevetron’s Covalent Connect optical architecture can be used to further divide the three-layer hierarchical connectivity into specific departments and modular areas within each department. These modules represent access layer devices in areas that have different physical or logical connectivity.

Large network design projects are normally divided into three distinct steps:

• Identify the network requirements.
• Characterize the existing network.
• Design the network topology and solutions.

Failure to correctly estimate the scope of a network or network upgrade of the project can greatly increase the cost and time required to implement the new applications and requirements. The functionality of the core layer is extremely important in delivery topography. The incorporation of Tevetron’s Covalent Connect optical topography and management system makes delivery task easier.

Functions of the core layer design include the following:

• Provide 100% uptime.
• Maximize throughput.
• Facilitate network growth.
• Redundancy at the core layer enables the network to keep functioning even when a device or link
• Layer 3 devices, including multilayer switches, are usually deployed at the core layer of the network.
• Most core layers in a network are wired in either a full-mesh or partial-mesh topology.
• Devices at the core layer usually contain redundant power supplies and hot-swappable components.
• Fast-converging routing protocols, such as OSPF and EIGRP, are the appropriate choice for the core layer

The distribution layer represents a routing boundary between the access layer and the core layer. As with the core layer, the distribution layer goals must also be met. The design goals for the distribution layer are as follows:

• Filtering and managing traffic flows
• Enforcing access control policies
• Summarizing routes before advertising them to the core
• Isolating the core from access layer failures or disruptions
• Routing between access layer VLANs

In the typical hierarchical design model, it is easiest and usually least expensive to control the size of a failure domain in the distribution layer. Redundancy at the distribution layer ensures that failure domains remain small. Providing multiple connections to Layer 2 switches can cause unstable behavior in a network unless STP is enabled. Traffic filtering is one way to ensure the smooth flow of traffic between the access and the core layers. This is accomplished at the distribution layer. ACLs are commonly applied to routers to ensure that traffic flows continue, and they provide an additional level of security for the network. With ACLs enabled, the router examines each packet, and then either forwards or discards it, based on the conditions specified in the ACL.

The criteria for the decisions can include the following:

• Source address
• Destination address
• Protocols
• Upper-layer port numbers
• Whether the packet is part of an established stream

In addition to providing basic connectivity at the access layer, the designer needs to consider the following:

• Naming structures.
• VLAN architecture.
• Traffic patterns.
• Prioritization strategies.
• Most recent Ethernet networks use a star topology, which is sometimes called a hub-and-spoke topology.
• Using VLANs and IP subnets is the most common method for segregating user groups and traffic within the access layer network.
• Networks also need mechanisms to control congestion when traffic increases and queues for delivery.
• Congestion is caused when the demand on the network resources exceeds the available capacity.
• Classifying data at or near the source enables the data to be assigned the appropriate priority as it moves through the entire network.

For networks, it is extremely important that these goals and considerations be used from the very beginning of the network design methodology. From the topology used to the level of physical access given to personnel can mean the difference between a successful network implementation and a dismal failure.






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